Evaluation is the systematic observation of relevant performance to make decisions (Arreola, 2007), involving four main components:
(adapted from Wolf, 1987)
A teaching evaluation initiative, therefore, could involve a change to practice in any of these areas.
Teaching evaluation also has many different purposes, from teaching and program improvement, to personnel decision making, to accountability reporting. Typically, evaluation can be divided into formative and summative evaluation:
Summative Evaluation: final assessment, judgment
Formative Evaluation: developmental
There are many recurring themes in research on effective teaching evaluation. To be effective, teaching evaluation should be:
(Wright et al., 2014)
Arreola, R. (2007). Developing a comprehensive faculty evaluation system: A guide to designing, building and operating large-scale faculty evaluation systems. San Francisco: Anker Publishing
Berk, R.A. (2009). Using the 360° multisource feedback model to evaluate teaching and professionalism. Medical Teacher, 31(12), 1073-1080.
Berk, R.A. (2014). Should student outcomes be used to evaluate teaching? Journal of Faculty Development, 28(2), 87-96.
Buller, J. (2012). Best practices in faculty evaluation: A practical guide for academic leaders. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
Chalmers, D., Cumming, R., Elliot, S., Stoney, S., Tucker, B., Wicking, R., & Jorre de St Jorre, T. (2014). Australian University Teaching Criteria and Standards Project Final Report. Retrieved from http://uniteachingcriteria.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Draft-SP12-2335-Project-Final-Report-21-July-2014.pdf
Gibbs, G. & Coffey, M. (2004). The impact of training of university teachers on their teaching skills, their approach to teaching and the approach to learning of their students. Active Learning in Higher Education, 5(1), 87-100.
Graniero, P. & Hamilton, B. (2016). Making Sense of Teaching Evaluations: The Value of Noise. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Western University: London (ON)
Gravestock, P. (2011). Does teaching matter? The role of teaching evaluation in tenure policies at selected Canadian universities. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Gravestock, P. & Gregor-Greenleaf, E. (2008). Student course evaluations: Research, models and trends. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.
Grayson, J.P. & Grayson, K. (2003). Research on retention and attrition (No. 6). Montreal: The Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation.
Hativa, N. (2013). Student ratings of instruction: Recognizing effective teaching. USA: Oron Publications.
Hénard, F. & Roseveare, D. (2012). Fostering quality teaching in higher education: Policies and practices. An Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) guide for higher education Institutions. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/QT%20 policies%20and%20practices.pdf
Piccinin, S.J. (2003). Green Guide 4: Feedback key to learning. Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. London, ON.
Theall, M. & Franklin, J. (2001). Looking for bias in all the wrong places: A search for truth or a witch hunt in student ratings of instruction? In P. Theall, L. Abrami, & L. Mets (Eds.) The student ratings debate: Are they valid? How can we best use them? New Directions in Educational Research, 109. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wolf, R. (1987). The nature of educational evaluation. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(1), 7-19.
Wright, A., Hamilton, B., Mighty, J., Muirhead, B., & Scott, J. (2014). The Ontario universities’ teaching evaluation toolkit: A feasibility study. Report to the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities – Productivity and Innovation Fund Program. University of Windsor: Windsor, ON.